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Gastric cancer also known as stomach cancer arises from the lining of the stomach. This cancer is the third most common cause of cancer death across the world. Until, the exact cause of this cancer is not known. In 2014, the estimated numbers of new cases will be 22,220 while death cases will be 10,990 from gastric cancer in the United States. Immunotherapeutic treatment is used for gastric cancer. According to World Health Organization (WHO), gastric cancer are classified into two histological types include intestinal and diffuse. Intestinal cancer notes from precancerous lesions. This type of cancer more common in men while diffuse cancer takes place mostly in young patients, may be Multifocal and hereditary.
Several factors can increase the risk of this cancer, including Helicobacter pylori infection, gender (men have more than double the risk than women, advanced age, blood type A, genetic abnormalities and some inherited cancer syndromes, family history, lifestyle factors such as diet chart low in fruits and vegetables, cigarette smoking and drinking alcohol. Immunotherapy has been playing a significant role in treatment for cancer, including gastric cancer by using monoclonal antibodies (MAB), vaccines and adoptive cell therapy.
Mechanism of action of monoclonal antibodies is blocking growth receptor interactions, activating effector mechanism of the immune system and down regulating proteins required for cancer cell growth. Transtuzumab and Ramucirumab both drugs have received food and drug administration (FDA) approval for MAB treatments focusing on gastric cancer. Generally, a vaccine based immunotherapy activities and expands tumor specific T cells as effectors T cells. These vaccines may act by enhancing body's immune system. Segregation of antigens specific cells, expansion and activation are considered in adoptive cell therapy. Some immunotherapeutic drugs are running in various phases of clinical trials. Bortezomib (NCT00061932) is running in Phase- II, which targets to Proteasome under Non-randomized, safety and efficacy study. Bevacizumab (NCT00952003) is running in Phase- III, which targets to Angiogenesis under Safety and Efficacy Study. G17DT (NCT02233712) is running in Phase- II, which targets to Gastrin 17 under Non-Randomized, Safety/Efficacy Study. Lapatinib (NCT00103324) is running in Phase- III, which targets to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) under Safety and Efficacy Study. visit for more information (link blocked - not on whitelist)
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